What is Journalism? History of Journalism in India.

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Journalism is the investigation and reporting of events, issues and trends to a broad audience. Though there are many variations of journalism, the ideal is to inform the intended audience about topics ranging from
government and business organizations to cultural aspects of society such as arts and entertainment. The field includes editing, photojournalism, and documentary.
In modern society, news media have become the chief purveyor of information and opinion about public affairs; but the role and status of journalism, along with other forms of mass media, are undergoing changes resulting from the Internet. [1] This has resulted in a shift toward reading on e-readers, smartphones, and other electronic devices rather than print media and has faced news organizations with the ongoing problem of monetizing on digital news. Many struggling organizations believe that "journalism is in dire shape, and the triumph of digital is to blame," but Rupert Murdoch insists the "future of journalism is more promising than ever—limited only by editors and producers unwilling to fight for their readers and viewers, or government using its heavy hand either to over-regulate us or subsidize us."[2] It remains to be seen which news organizations can make the best of the advent of digital media and whether or not print media can survive.
The use of information graphics and time management techniques are revolutionizing the newsroom through the use of the maestro concept..
Main article: History of journalism
Johann Carolus's Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, published in 1605 in Strassburg, is often recognized as the first newspaper. The first successful English daily, the Daily Courant, was published from 1702 to 1735.[3] The first dedicated school for journalism, Missouri School of Journalism, was founded in 1908 in the United States of America by Walter Williams.[4] The reform of the Diário Carioca newspaper in the 1950s is usually referred to as the birth of modern journalism in Brazil.[5]
The first newspaper in India was published by James Hicky in January 1780. It wascalled the Bengal Gazette and announced itself as “a weekly political and commercial paper open to all parties but influenced by none”.Bengal Gazette was a two-sheet paper measuring 12 inches by 8 inches, most of the space being occupied by advertisements. Its circulation reached a maximum of 200 copies.Within six years of Bengal Gazette, four more weeklies were launched in Kolkata (thenCalcutta).
Madras Courier was launched in 1782.
 Bombay Herald was launched in 1791.
Bombay Courier was launched in 1792. It published advertisements in English andGujarati.
In 1799, the East India administration passed regulations to increase its control over the press.
The first newspaper under Indian administration appeared in 1816. It was also calledBengal Gazette and was published by Gangadhar Bhattacharjee. It was a liberal paper which advocated the reforms of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.Raja Ram Mohan Roy himself brought out a magazine in Persian called Mirat-ul-Ukhbar.He also published The Brahmanical Magazine, an English periodical to counteract thereligious propaganda of the Christian missionaries of Serampore.
In 1822, the Chandrika Samachar was started in Bengal.At the same time, Bombay Samachar was started by Ferdunji Marzban. It gaveimportance to social reform and commercial news in Gujarati.
The first Hindi newspaper Oodunt Martand was published in 1826 from Bengal.However, it could not survive long because of its distant readership and high postal rates.Its place was soon taken by Jami Jahan Numa, a newspaper that was pro-establishment.
In 1832, Bal Shastri Jambhekar launched at Anglo-Marathi newspaper from Pune.
A large number of short-lived newspapers were brought out in this time. Some were inIndian languages like Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Urdu and Persian.
The Uprising of 1857 brought out the divide between Indian owned and British ownednewspapers. The government passed the Gagging Act of 1847 and the Vernacular PressAct in 1876.After 1857, the pioneering efforts in newspapers shifted from Bengal to Mumbai.Gujarati press made great progress under the efforts of Ferdunji Marzban and KurshedjiCama.Marathi journalism followed close behind with a distinctive educational bias.
In 1861, Mr Knight merged the Bombay Standard, Bombay Times and Telegraph and brought out the first issue of Times of India.
In 1875, the same Mr Knight with the backing of rich merchants from Kolkata startedIndian Statesman which was later called as Statesman.Around the same time, Amrita Bazar Patrika was able to establish itself in Kolkata.Starting out as a vernacular paper, it was constantly in trouble due to its outspokenness.In order to circumvent the strict provision of the Vernacular Press Act, Amrita Bazar Patrika converted itself overnight into an English newspaper.Amrita Bazar Patrika inspired freedom fighter Lokmanya Tilak to start Kesari in Pune.He used Kesari to build anti-cow killing societies, Ganesh mandals and reviving theChhatrapati Shivaji cult. He used mass communication as a powerful political weapon.
By 1905, the English and vernacular press had become pretty professional. Politicalleaders and social reformers were regular contributors to newspapers. Some prominentwriters of the time were C Y Chintamani, G A Natesan, N C Kelkar, Phirozshah Mehtaand Benjamin Horniman.Indian news was supplied by special correspondent and government hand-outs (pressreleases), international news was supplied by Reuters, an international news agency.
1920s and 1930s
 Newspapers in this period started reflecting popular political opinion. While bigEnglish dailies were loyal to the British government, the vernacular press wasstrongly nationalist.
The Leader and Bombay Chronicle were pro-Congress.
The Servant of India and The Bombay Chronicle were moderate.
The Bande Mataram of Aurbindo Ghosh, Kal of Poona and Sakli of Surat werefiercely nationalist.
In 1918, Motilal Nehru started the Independent of Lucknow as a newspaper of extreme Indian opinion.
The Home Rule Party started Young India, which later became MahatmaGandhiji’s mouthpiece.As more and more Indians started learning English, many became reporters, editors andeven owners. The Anglo-Indian press began to lose ground except in Bombay andCalcutta.In 1927, industrialist G D Birla took over Hindustan Times and placed it on a soundfinancial footing.In the same year, S Sadanand started the Free Press Journal, a newspaper for the poor andthe middle-class in Mumbai

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